While some claim that sports serve a conservative role in culture and national identity, others claim that association is merely chauvinistic and xenophobic. These latter claims are bolstered by the heinous acts committed by football hooligans. Still, sports have also played a role in liberal nationalist political struggles. A 19th century Slavic gymnastics movement known as the Falcon and its affiliated clubs were at the forefront of national liberation movements from Russian and Austrian rule.
Modern sports originated in the late 17th century in England. The concept of sports records first arose during the Restoration period, when the Puritans condemned traditional pastimes. As a result, traditional games were forced underground and were replaced by more organized games. The Marylebone Cricket Club, founded in 1787, led the way in developing organized games. In fact, the game’s popularity reached the point where it became an Olympic sport in 1964.
The orchestration of emotions in sports begins with the arousal of expectations. Then, the diffuse emotional state is directed into identifiable displays. Elite athletes internalize scripts from coaches, while media pundits contribute to the management of fans’ emotions. In addition, stage setters prompt fans to express various emotions during games. The result is a psychologically healthy, highly competitive atmosphere. The emotional processes associated with sports are beneficial to all aspects of human life, from professional to recreational.
Modern sports developed as a result of globalization, which involves the development of international relations and the spread of mass culture. During the 19th century, globalization processes spawned national sports organizations, the standardization of rules and the emergence of special competitions. Throughout the 20th century, sports continued to be impacted by globalization processes. And despite the apparent disparities, globalization processes created a unique environment for sport.