Modern sports have emerged in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This period was marked by globalization and the establishment of national sports organizations. There was also widespread acceptance of international sports rules and the creation of special competitions, such as the Olympic Games. Modern sports are increasingly interconnected, with interdependency chains and unequal power relations. This trend led to the marginalization of regional traditional sports. Only Afghanistan’s kemari and Japanese football were able to survive in their own cultures as folkloric curiosities.
Emotions in sports are important aspects of the experience. They reflect athletes’ personal evaluations of performance as well as their perception of other people’s evaluations. Some of these feelings may be experienced before a performance while others may be experienced during the game. Athletes may be encouraged to manage their feelings according to a set of “feeling rules” established by the sport’s subculture. These rules might include appropriate behavior during the national anthem or a postgame victory celebration.
While the aesthetic element remains in some sports, the emphasis is on quantifiable achievement. The shift from Renaissance sports to modern sports can be seen in the word “measure”. Previously, the word measure connoted a sense of proportion and balance. As time progressed, the term came to mean numerical measurement. Consequently, the term “sport” was transformed from a culturally based activity to an individualized activity. The definition of “sport” is therefore crucial.